People in poverty in Hawaii

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Why This Indicator Matters

Poverty can have multiple and long-lasting negative effects on individuals. Negative outcomes include poor nutrition, poor physical and mental health, low educational achievement and attainment, and lack of adequate housing to name a few.1 The effects of poverty can build over time, with consequences at one stage impeding progress at a later stage. When children experience poverty in early childhood, or when poverty persists over an extended period of time, the consequences can be long-lasting.2

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Data Provided By

Definitions: Percent of the total population living below the federal poverty level.

Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates Program, Model-based small area income and poverty estimates for school districts, counties, and states, various years.

Technical Note:
Several data sources are used in producing the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program estimates. Information on data inputs can be found at https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/guidance/model-input-data.html. For states and counties, comparisons between modeled estimates for two different years, in the 2006-2020 time period are possible for poverty rate of the all-age population. Poverty estimates from SAIPE should not be compared with other poverty indicators based on data from the American Community Survey 5-year estimates.

Footnotes:

1Engle, Patrice L. and Maureen M. Black. 2008. “The Effect of Poverty on Child Development and Educational Outcomes.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1136(1): 243-256.; Ratcliffe, Caroline and Signe-Mary McKerman. 2012. “Child Poverty and Its Lasting Consequences.” Washington D.C.: The Urban Institute.  
2 Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne and Greg J. Duncan. 1997. “The Effects of Poverty on Children.” The Future of Children 7(2).