Children under 18 in low-income families (ACS) in Hawaii

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Why This Indicator Matters

The child poverty rate may understate the proportion of children growing up in economic hardship. Research shows that families need income at least twice the poverty level to cover basic living expenses like food, housing, transportation and childcare.1 Children growing up in low-income households face financial hardship that can have profound effects, especially when the hardship occurs early in life, impacting their cognitive, social, emotional and physical development.2

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Data Provided By

Definitions: Percent of children under 18 years old in families with incomes below 200% of the federal poverty level

Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, (various years), American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B17024: Age by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level in the Past 12 Months - Universe: Population for whom poverty status is determined 

Technical Note:
Poverty estimates from ACS should not be compared with other poverty indicators based on data from the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE).

Please note, the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) 5-year estimates provide average characteristics aggregated over a 5-year period. The primary advantage of using multiyear estimates is the increased statistical reliability of the data for less populated areas and small population subgroups. However, 5-year estimates are less current than single year estimates (i.e., since they are derived from averages over five calendar years) and should not be compared to single year estimates. The Census Bureau suggests comparing periods that do not overlap, such as comparing 2007-2011 with 2012-2016, which means waiting longer to identify a trend. However, in areas undergoing fundamental shifts in the size or composition of the population, change may be so substantial that it will be obvious after only a few years. Please see the ACS data use handbook for more information (

A 90 percent confidence interval for each estimate can be found at the footnotes below.


1 National Center for Children in Poverty. “Measuring Poverty.” Accessed July 2019. Available here: 
2 Census Bureay. 1994. “Housing of Lower-Income Households.” Statistical Brief. U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration.; Demo, David H. and Martha J.Cox. 2000. “Families with Children: A Review of the Research in the 1990s.” Journal of Marriage and Family 62: 876-895.

Children under 18 in low-income families (ACS).