Expulsions that are limited to serious offenses, not willful defiance by race/ethnicity in California

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Why This Indicator Matters

Expulsions on the grounds of willful defiance are illegal since the passing of Assembly Bill 420 in 2014.
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Definitions: Includes the percentage of expulsions that are not the result of willful defiance, as a percentage of all expulsions. The designation of “willful defiance” is problematic because of its ambiguity. While there are no clear criteria for offenses that constitute willful defiance, it can include disruptive behavior, such as eye rolling, coming to class late or talking back to a teacher.

Data Source: Children Now analysis of data from California Department of Education, DataQuest, data on total expulsions and total expulsions coded as willful defiance.

Footnotes: For the Modoc county 2014 Scorecard data point, Children Now created a 3-year average combining 2010-11, 2011-12 and 2012-13 data in lieu of a low number event.

Data that are not available are noted as NA. The most frequent reasons for NAs include the unavailability of longitudinal data, fewer than 10 cases (low number events), and statistically unstable estimates.

Asterisks* An asterisk indicates that data should be interpreted with caution. Asterisks were used to note low number of events (fewer than 10) or unstable data with large confidence intervals. Data or estimates with low numbers and large confidence intervals indicate that a data point may not be a true representation of the larger population. NA (Not Available) Data that are not available are noted as NA. The most frequent reasons for using the NA annotation include the unavailability of longitudinal data, data suppression from the original data source due to a low number event, or statistically unstable estimates.