Children under 18 in low-income families (ACS) in Hawaii
Why This Indicator Matters
The child poverty rate may understate the proportion of children growing up in economic hardship. Research shows that families need income at least twice the poverty level to cover basic living expenses like food, housing, transportation and childcare.1 Children growing up in low-income households face financial hardship that can have profound effects, especially when the hardship occurs early in life, impacting their cognitive, social, emotional and physical development.2
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Children under 18 in low-income families (ACS)
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Children under 18 in low-income families (ACS)
Definitions:Percent of children under 18 years old in families with incomes below 200% of the federal poverty level
Data Source:U.S. Census Bureau, (various years), American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B17024: Age by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level in the Past 12 Months - Universe: Population for whom poverty status is determined
Poverty estimates from ACS should not be compared with other poverty indicators based on data from the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE).
Please note, the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) 5-year estimates provide average characteristics aggregated over a 5-year period. The primary advantage of using multiyear estimates is the increased statistical reliability of the data for less populated areas and small population subgroups. However, 5-year estimates are less current than single year estimates (i.e., since they are derived from averages over five calendar years) and should not be compared to single year estimates. The Census Bureau suggests comparing periods that do not overlap, such as comparing 2007-2011 with 2012-2016, which means waiting longer to identify a trend (for more information, read the comparison guidance and Period Estimates in the American Community Survey). However, in areas undergoing fundamental shifts in the size or composition of the population, change may be so substantial that it will be obvious after only a few years. Please see the ACS handbook on Understanding and Using American Community Survey Data for more information.
Following pandemic-related data collection disruptions, the Census Bureau revised its methodology to reduce nonresponse bias in data collected in 2020. After evaluating the effectiveness of this methodology, the Census Bureau determined the standard, full suite of 2016–2020 ACS 5-year data are fit for public release, government and business uses. To learn more about changes to the methodology, view the methodology user note.A 90 percent confidence interval for each estimate can be found at the footnotes below.
1 National Center for Children in Poverty. “Measuring Poverty.” Accessed July 2019. Available here: http://www.nccp.org/topics/measuringpoverty.html.
2 Census Bureay. 1994. “Housing of Lower-Income Households.” Statistical Brief. U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration.; Demo, David H. and Martha J.Cox. 2000. “Families with Children: A Review of the Research in the 1990s.” Journal of Marriage and Family 62: 876-895.
Hawaiʻi Children's Action Network
Hawaii KIDS COUNT is a partnership between the Hawaii Children’s Action Network (HCAN), the University of Hawaii Center on the Family, Hawaii Appleseed Center for Law and Economic Justice, and the Hawaii Budget and Policy Center.
HCAN is the Hawaii state partner for KIDS COUNT. HCAN has long invested in research and analysis as a cornerstone of our work to ensure all children are healthy, safe, and ready to learn.
Additional Hawaii State Resources: