People in poverty in Hawaii

Change Indicator

Why This Indicator Matters

Poverty can have multiple and long-lasting negative effects on individuals. Negative outcomes include poor nutrition, poor physical and mental health, low educational achievement and attainment, and lack of adequate housing to name a few.1 The effects of poverty can build over time, with consequences at one stage impeding progress at a later stage. When children experience poverty in early childhood, or when poverty persists over an extended period of time, the consequences can be long-lasting.2

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Data Provided By

Definitions: Percent of the total population living below the federal poverty level.

Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates Program, Model-based small area income and poverty estimates for school districts, counties, and states, various years.

Technical Note:
Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) combine data from administrative records, postcensal population estimates, and the decennial census with direct estimates from the American Community Survey to provide consistent and reliable single-year estimates.  Due to the switch from the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement to American Community Survey data in SAIPE modeling between 2004 and 2005, comparisons across these particular time periods are not advised (for SAIPE methodology, see: Poverty estimates from SAIPE should not be compared with other poverty indicators based on data from the American Community Survey 5-year estimates. 


1Engle, Patrice L. and Maureen M. Black. 2008. “The Effect of Poverty on Child Development and Educational Outcomes.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1136(1): 243-256.; Ratcliffe, Caroline and Signe-Mary McKerman. 2012. “Child Poverty and Its Lasting Consequences.” Washington D.C.: The Urban Institute.  
2 Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne and Greg J. Duncan. 1997. “The Effects of Poverty on Children.” The Future of Children 7(2).