Children under 5 in poverty by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (3-year average)

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Children under 5 in poverty by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (3-year average)

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Definitions: The number and share of children who live in families with income below the poverty threshold (100% Federal Poverty Guideline) as defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. These figures are divided by racial category and Hispanic origin. All figures are for children under the age of five.

Data Source: The U.S. Census Bureau's American Fact Finder, 2005-2007, 2006-2008, 2007-2009, and 2008-2010 American Community Survey (ACS) 3-Year Estimates. Data were retrieved from: http://factfinder2.census.gov (Tables B17020A-B17020I).

*Please use these estimates with caution. The total confidence interval (upper bound minus lower bound) of the percent estimate, is 10 percentage points or greater, which indicates that this estimate has a large margin of error. This generally occurs when estimate relies on small number of cases. To obtain total confidence interval values around the estimates for this indicator please contact Washington KIDS COUNT.

Footnotes: Data last updated in January 2012 by Washington KIDS COUNT.

The 2008-2010 ACS data release marked the third time that 3-year estimates were released for areas with populations of 20,000 and greater. The ACS 2008-2010 data were collected during calendar years 2008, 2009, and 2010.

The 3-year ACS estimates represent the average characteristics over the 3-year period of time, and therefore are less current than 1-year ACS estimates. However, these estimates are more reliable because they are based on a larger sample size. The 3-year estimates are also available for more geographic areas because they are published for populations of 20,000 or greater, while 1-year estimates are only published for populations of 65,000 or greater. More information about 1-year versus 3-year ACS surveys and estimates are available online at http://www.census.gov/acs/www/data_documentation/documentation_main/.

The federal poverty definition consists of a series of thresholds based on family size and composition. In 2009, the poverty threshold for a family of two adults and two children was $22,113.


In the ACS, race is a self-identification data item in which respondents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify. The racial/ethnic categories of the US Census Bureau can be found in the following report: Census 2000 Brief, “Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin”. A summary of the racial categories is reproduced below.

“White” refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicated their race or races as “White” or wrote in entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish.

“Black or African American” refers to people having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicated their race or races as “Black, African Am., or Negro,” or wrote in entries such as African American, Afro American, Nigerian, or Haitian.

“American Indian and Alaska Native” refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment. It includes people who indicated their race or races by marking this category or writing in their principal or enrolled tribe, such as
Rosebud Sioux, Chippewa, or Navajo.

“Asian” refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent. It includes people who indicated their race or races as “Asian Indian,” “Chinese,” “Filipino,” “Korean,” “Japanese,” “Vietnamese,” or “Other Asian,” or wrote in entries such as Burmese, Hmong, Pakistani, or Thai.

“Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander” refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. It includes people who indicated their race or races as “Native Hawaiian,” “Guamanian or Chamorro,” “Samoan,” or
“Other Pacific Islander,” or wrote in entries such as Tahitian, Mariana Islander, or Chuukese.

“Some other race” was included in Census 2000 for respondents who were unable to identify with the five Office of Management and Budget race categories. Respondents who provided write-in entries such as Moroccan, South African, Belizean, or a Hispanic origin (for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban) are included in the Some other race category.